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As urine is formed in the body, there are small, microscopic crystals that form from 10 different minerals.  For dogs, the most common minerals affect them will be magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), calcium oxalate (whewellite or weddellite), and urate.  These stones can form either in the kidneys or in the bladder.  If the urine stays in the body for prolonged periods, the microscopic crystals can form together to form larger crystals that we call “stones”.  For some of the minerals, there needs to be proper pH values to allow for stones to form.  Diet and urine volume can also be factors in this.  Higher water intake will lessen the chance of this occurring.  While these will always be painful to pass through the urethra, males have a high chance of death from urethral obstruction.  Smaller dogs, as well as Miniature Schnauzers, Dalmatians, Yorkshire Terriers, and English Bulldogs have a higher probability for this condition.  Symptoms can include:

  • Straining When Urinating
  • Decreased Urine Flow
  • Frequent Attempts to Urinate
  • Blood in Urine
  • Excessive Licking of the Genitals
  • Bladder Infection